This weekend as many of you know was Veterans day, but not just ANY Veterans day: this Sunday was the 100th anniversary of the end of hostilities in the ‘War to End all Wars’.
In true Cantigny Park style we celebrated both on Saturday with our ‘Brew-it-Forward’ Veterans event, and on Sunday with the ‘Bells of Peace’ ceremony marking the end of hostilities and the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Armistice. My self and other museum volunteers brought out the Liberty to show the public and wore original WW1 uniforms to interpret the lives and history of those no longer able to tell their story. The truck performed fantastically in the frigid temperatures, and the public crowded around to see this wonderful marvel of a by-gone era roar to life. Our truck is a second-series assembled from parts of first and second series trucks alike, so we have taken to calling November 1918 its general time of creation, making this Veteran’s day its 100th birthday.
We hope that our impact was a deep one and that the public we talked to will not forget the importance of this conflict and lives lost during it. Though fading in American memory, the Great War will forever live on in the stories of those who knew others who experienced it, and through our continuing outreach. The Liberty Truck is a powerful living artifact that can help us to bring history and the memory of WW1 alive for generations to come. To all of you out there who have served, thank you for your service and happy Veterans day!
I previously posted back in October about one of two hard-to-find parts that I finally managed to come across for our truck. Now I’m here to talk about the other part I didn’t mention: the Carbide Gas generator!
Now, for those of you not familiar with the gas/oil lighting system on second-series Liberty Trucks, check out my earlier post here: Liberty Truck Lighting Systems PART 2: Did We Say Electric? We Totally Meant Gas and Oil… Now I am now and will forever remain on the lookout for the correct generator, but for the time being the model I found is about as good as its gonna get. The Liberty was issued from the factory with a ‘Solar’ brand model 1012-B Calcium-carbide gas generator. Now the biggest issue with brass-era automobile lighting is that there isn’t a whole lot of technical data out there immediately available for you in terms of measurements and model years. I have been hunting for a 1012-B for several months but never found anything close. I had reached out to several restoration specialists in the field of brass-era gas lighting, but none responded to my inquiries. However, as I would see the truck every day the empty bracket on the firewall mocked me and began to haunt my dreams. “When will I find you?” I asked myself. As I continued to search, I began to fear that I may never be able to truly complete our truck…
I got lucky one day, and noticed a generator which kept popping up on my search feed. The price wasn’t fantastic so I kept scrolling past it. But as days wore on and I continued to search it became evident to me that I may not find anything better for much less. It wasn’t a 1012-B, but the dimensions and design looked very similar- so I took a chance and it paid off. After some back and forth over tax-exemption (we are a 501c3 museum and the generator was coming from an estate sale which would’ve required us to pay state taxes), I settled on a price. It is in fact a Model 712 which is pre-dates the 1012-B by a few years, but works exactly the same: Water goes in the top, drips slowly onto Calcium carbide pellets which makes acetylene gas which powers the search light! At first glance all the parts are present on ours and appear to be functioning or capable of it, but we won’t be ale to tell for sure until we get it cleaned up and filled with some carbide pellets.
The 712 model has a few small features which differ from the correct 1012-B model. Most noticeable for us is the presence of mounting lugs molded into the generator body- these stick out in such a way that they make it impossible to mount on the truck. However, if ground-off, the dimensions are perfect for fitting to our truck ( the 1012-B had no mounts on it at all and is meant to ‘sit’ on a small lug mounted to the truck and is then secured to the firewall via a ring mount). The other major difference is the gas nozzle on the top of the reservoir- the 1012-B has only one whereas ours has two- intended to split the gas to be distributed to two headlamps. Ours only hooks to one main line which feeds the search light. If we simply plug or cover one of the two nozzles on ours, we should be good to go for functionality purposes or until we find a proper 1012-B to use. The other big difference appears to be the materials used; the older 712 is all brass construction whereas the 1012-B appears to have had a brass top reservoir and a steel or aluminum lower cannister which was painted black (prior to being painted drab to match the truck). However, I’ve been unable to confirm this as I haven’t been able to personally inspect an original.
All there is left to do now is remove the mounting points and round-out the reservoir rim, clean it up, paint it and mount it to the truck! Now if we could just find an original working fuel transfer pump….
Welcome back to the blog and Happy Halloween! I am very excited to announce that I finally located and purchased two of the 3 missing parts for our truck which have kept me awake at night since the truck arrived at the Museum- a Carbide gas generator and Klaxon horn! I’ll be covering the horn in detail in this post.
Now, I know what many of you brass-era enthusiasts might be thinking: ‘Ian, that’s a motor cycle horn and not a car horn’. Well, you would be right. Except, that its also the type of horn used on the Liberty trucks and differs slightly from electric motorcycle horns of the time period that closely resemble it. In the many photos I have scanned through as well as surviving examples, there are two types of horn used- the short bell, rear-push Klaxon-3 style horn appears to be the most common which is also the style that the trucks left the factory with. There was also a long-bell version which looks more like the standard truck horns of the era and is also outlined in a government contract photo from the National Archives as a ‘Class-B truck horn’. This however appears to be in the minority.
The rear-push short bell Klaxon-3 or ‘Klaxonet’ style is the more common of the two and I managed to find one in (very loud) working condition on eBay a month or so ago for around $250. All that remains now is to clean it up a little and paint it to match the truck as was commonly done. I have also noticed that there appears to be a small screen placed inside the bell on some horns in museums. I have not been able to verify if these screens were ever on issued horns at the time, but at the moment it appears to be a post-war feature as most photos show no screen. Our Klaxonet is an original body and mechanism with a reproduction bell. The reproduction bell was actually a large factor in buying is as I felt it was in very nice shape and also helped to reduce the cost slightly from others I had come across. It appears to also be missing several of its 6 retaining screws which affix the bell to the body. These can be easily replaced with new flathead screws and nuts. These screws are also integral to mounting the horn to its bracket.
And there in lies our next hiccup: we have a horn- but no mount. A mounting bracket was one of the few items we were never able to find in all the parts trucks we accumulated over the last decade. We have been carefully studying period photos, as well as photos we have taken of surviving examples such as the truck at the Fort Eustis Transportation Museum and US Marine Corps Museum at Quantico, VA. While we are unsure if these brackets are original, they appear to be so and are also some of the few photos we were able to get close enough to potentially replicate as most original photos are nearly impossible to get a complete walk-around view of. A small pixelated scan of an original manual shows a similar mount but only from the side- this would appear to indicate that this style was in fact original. It appears to be stamped steel and bent after stamping, making it easy to replicate.
There is also a mount outlined in the contract photo of the long-bell horn made for ‘Class-B trucks’ under contract for the government. This mount however would not fit the holes already present in the firewall of our truck which remain from a previous horn mount. At this time our money is on the mount style encountered at the Fort Eustis Museum simply because it is of a style which would better perform given the rear-push style of Klaxon horn used and brace the horn best from rear-applied force.
I want to thank Will ‘Adrian’ Winget for providing some very helpful information regarding horns and bracket images for this post. Stay tuned for more posts in the future and coverage of the other new part we finally tracked down that our truck was missing- a Carbide gas generator!
Hello everyone! Its been a little bit since our last post, so I figured I would update you all on our truck. We have been VERY busy since the Liberty, now officially named ‘Nancy’ in honor of our museum director’s late wife, arrived at our location in late August. She has been driven weekly at minimum and in many cases, daily. Giving me time to get use to the ins and outs of operating the truck and also get it ‘worked in’ so to speak. When the truck came to us, it was tight- crank starting the engine has gotten easier as engine was essentially brand new and completely restored using close to 99% original parts (aside from hoses, a few clamps, seals, and the magneto flexible coupling which we had to have manufactured). Since receiving the truck, it has been officially revealed to the public both at our park and outside it. In fact, the truck’s first public appearance was at this year’s Society of Automotive Engineers ‘Comvec’ national convention in Rosemont, IL. We were personally contacted by Navistar, the convention’s corporate sponsor this year who saw the significance in the truck’s development and now 100-year-old production history. All-around, it was a very fun experience to talk with so many engineers who appreciated the truck for its history and connection to the SAE!
First Division Musuem staff and volunteers at the SAE Comvec in Rosemont in September 2018
Our set up as part of the SAE’s ‘Mobility History Committee’ who sponsored our movement to and from the convention
Since Comvec we have continued to run the truck and bring it out for various events throughout the park and around the museum to include the Cantigny Car show which was the weekend following the SAE conference. Over 3,000 people attended and the truck truly stole the show away from our several WW2 vehicles also in attendance. Maintenance and parts hunting have continued to plague us just as any other antique vehicle owner- in particular getting the foot brake working and properly adjusted (breaking an original spring in the process…). This has been a time-consuming affair taking up several of our motor pool volunteer nights over the last month or so. However, I am happy to announce that we finally have the foot pedal not only adjusted but very responsive. With a vehicle of this age and lack of other examples, learning anything mechanically on it is very much a hands-on and flying blind process. In this case, the only documentation we had to go from were small, low quality photocopies of the brake disc system from an original manual from 1919. We are now very familiar with the brake linkages and system on the truck- something I plan to detail in future posts, so stay tuned!
That’s all for now. Pop back in soon for more updates and some upcoming posts on further history surrounding the truck’s service and parts!
Throughout my time writing for this blog and generally working on/with the Liberty truck, I have often been asked ‘Who made the truck’? This is a tricky question because the answer isn’t that simple and really causes me to go down a deep hole of research and information and rattle on and on about war production etc etc. The truth is, well, complicated.
To begin with, the Class-B Standardized military truck was a joint effort from day one: designed by engineers from multiple companies and societies, parts made by over 150 companies, and assembled from those parts by several different factories. This was all intentional of course- although convoluted and complex, the system for producing parts and assembling the trucks was intended to allow for multiple factories to be disrupted or sabotaged and still have several sources for one or more parts. The engines just to name one example, were built by 4 different companies- the batteries were made by seven, the cargo bodies were made by 5, and so on. An October 1917 article in the New York Times titled ‘New Army Truck Mechanical Marvel’ outlines the cooperation in making the engine saying: “…the crank case is Continental, the cylinders Waukesha, the oiling system a combination of Wisconsin and Buda, the pistons Hercules, the timing gear system a combination of Buda, Wisconsin, and Continental. The governor is a combination of Kelly-Springfield and Waukesha. The camshaft is a composite design…What has been said of the engine can be said of the transmission, the axles, and other parts”.
Naturally, a question I often get in regards to the Liberty truck is “Who made them”? In reality, everybody and their brother contributed parts or design features to the truck but it is often attributed to the Quartermaster Corps or Society of Automotive Engineers who actually created the designs for the truck. Because of this, the truck is often listed in reference material as just ‘Liberty’ or ‘Class-B military truck’ with no maker mentioned. The best way to interpret who made the truck, I find, is to list the more recognizable civilian company names that assembled them. Much like cars today, the maker is often considered to be the person who assembles the trucks final components but doesn’t necessarily make all those components themselves. While the trucks were also assembled by Quartermaster soldiers on the factory floor, civilians at 15 different companies- some well known, others long gone- assembled the Liberty trucks in their factories primarily in the Midwest.
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of American Trucks and Commercial Vehicles by Albert Mroz claims a total of 9,364 trucks assembled by 15 companies in total between 1917 and 1918. The breakdown of assemblers and production is as follows:
Bethlehem Motor Truck Corporation of Allentown, PA- 675
Brockway Motor Company of Cortland, NY- 589
Diamond T Motor Car Company of Chicago, IL- 63
Garford Motor Truck Co. of Lima, OH- 978
Gramm-Bernstein Company of Lima, OH- 1,000
Indiana Motor and Vehicle Co. of Indianapolis, IN- 475
Kelly-Springfield Motor Truck Company of Springfield, OH- 301
Packard of Detroit, MI- 5
Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company of Buffalo, NY- 975
Republic Motor Truck Company of Alma, MI- 967
Selden Motor Vehicle Company of Rochester, NY- 1,000
Service Motor truck Company of Wabash, IN- 337
Sterling Motor Truck Company of Milwaukee, WI- 479
United States Motor Truck Company of Covington, KY- 490
Velie Motors Corporation of Moline, IL- 455
On every Liberty produced there was a data plate- located to the left of the dash- which outlines the basic vehicle information: Serial number (also stamped into the frame and firewall), max load, speed, etc. While the trucks did not list the name of the particular factory that assembled it, they did provide a number corresponding to individual assemblers. This was no doubt done in an attempt to protect the strategic locations of US manufacturing. While it has yet to be officially proven, it is thought within the Liberty Truck community that the assembler number corresponds to the factories within the alphabetical list. For example: assembler number 9 would be the ninth assembler down the alphabetical list, in this case Pierce-Arrow. I would like to remind the reader that this has NOT been officially proven with documentation, but like many things related to the truck, we are missing lots of supporting government documents or have yet to discover them, so this appears to be the current assumption.
While these official numbers are the only ones I have (and am still digging to find Albert Mroz’s source on them), I have also found mention in contemporary documents from after the armistice claiming that trucks would continue to be produced from ‘existing parts’. There is no official number of trucks that I have yet found that outline the amount made after November 11th, nor an official last date of production, but we tend to guess there were somewhere around 2,000-3,000 more trucks produced following November 1918 when additional contracts for around 43,000 trucks were immediately halted. Production more than likely ended completely in early 1919.
But this is just scratching the surface! The Class-B Standardized Liberty truck was a truly all-American marvel of engineering which encompassed parts made by over 150 companies, and we’ve only covered the assemblers so far. Come back soon and we will have even more info on the companies that made this truck possible!
So we talked a little while ago about electric lighting on the truck- sure, it wasn’t like today’s bulbs but electric lighting was the latest and greatest form of automobile lighting during WW1. So naturally an improved second-series truck would have the best and BRIGHTEST (get it?) features…right?
Instead, the second-series Liberty Truck introduced very late in the war would have not electric, but gas and oil lighting systems in their place.
The oil lamps were simple enough- a standard Kerosene oil lamp similar to any other of the time period using a threaded wick. They would need to be lit by hand in the event of use, but could be very easily extinguished (on their own more often than not) and cleaned and disassembled in the field. It is a safe assumption that generally, your run-of-the-mill rural-born US doughboy would have been more familiar with the care and maintenance of an oil lamp than an electric light which was an added benefit to this system. Kerosene would have also been readily available anywhere the truck might be whether it be Europe or the US.
But the oil lamps weren’t the only illumination- the main source of light on the second series of trucks was an acetylene gas-powered search light, mounted on the center of the dash and typically controlled by the co-driver. This was not the pressurized acetylene we are familiar with today: the searchlight was powered by lump or powder calcium-carbide which would interact with water by way of a filter reservoir and slow drip system (the gas ‘generator’). This interaction would in turn create acetylene gas which would travel up a brass or rubber hose through the dash to the search light which could be ignited by the operator in the cab. This gas system is a larger version of what was commonly encountered on the lamps of miner’s hats and helmets of the period and was also quite common on commercial automobiles such as early model-T’s.
A ‘Solar’ brand gas generator was initially issued with trucks. With a brass housing, the Solar generator was typically painted drab to match the vehicle and obscure the shiny brass. Photos have been found of some trucks in use with the Army which have had the generator replaced with other models of gas generator or pressurized tank, the reason for which is unknown.
The question after all this that begs an answer is really, well, why not just stick with the electric system? In my extensive research and combing documents I have found little written during or after the war as to why or when they made the switch officially. One theory could be that the removal of the wiring system contributed to an overall simpler truck; easier to assemble, less parts to fix, less parts to supply, and a simplified standardization process which was at the core of the trucks design.
Another theory could have been field maintenance. Oil lamps and carbide gas generators are far easier to clean, replace and fix in a field environment than electrical components and would have required far less invasive maintenance than an elaborate wiring system. Familiarization with oil and carbide lamps amongst generally un-educated and often illiterate soldiers is another factor, where electrical wiring would have required someone with more advanced technical training or knowledge to fix. Keep in mind that for many in America, electric lighting was still quite new and some may have had their first experience with it in the Army. While the official documented reasons are still shrouded in mystery, these theories are simply some of my own from observations interaction with both lighting systems and considering common social and educational limitations of the time period.
Illumination: a basic desire of anyone working at night or with terrible vision, or both! The Liberty was driven by people who found themselves in both those situations frequently- hopefully more of one than the other. Of course, lights for the trucks were a necessity and the Quartermaster Department saw to it that that the standardized Class-B truck had the best that could be offered at the time…at first.
To begin with we should state that there were two different lighting systems utilized by the Liberty Truck- electric for the First-series truck which was followed by what some would consider a step backwards in the form of Carbide gas and oil lamp lighting on the Second-series. The electric lighting system was a simple one attached to an acid battery which would require periodic recharging and distilled water refills. The electrical system is a hallmark of the first series of trucks. The wiring harness associated with the lighting system added a layer of complexity to the complete truck which may have influenced its removal in later series, but its usefulness was evident.
The system consisted of 2 adjustable-focus head lamps, 2 tail lamps, 2 small side lamps mounted near the front bumper support, and a single dash-mounted ‘trouble light’ which could be plugged-in to a socket to turn it on in case of emergency. The headlights were mounted to brackets on the exterior of the upper firewall above the engine housing. Each lamp could be adjusted to allow a more focused beam of light. We have little information on the output of the lights as far as brightness in actual practice, but given the technology of the day and standard 6V bulb brightness it was probably not the greatest…but at least it was better than candles. In fact, the 1918 ‘Standardized Military Truck Class-B Instruction Book’ lists the head lamps as containing ’21-candlepower bulbs’ when focused correctly at about 20 feet away. For comparison, your average 60W vehicle headlight nowadays is around 7,000 candlepower (abbreviated ‘cp’) measured at a distance of around 30 feet.
For obvious reasons of detection and ‘tactical environments’ the tail, side and dash lights were all much less powerful than the head lamps containing 6V, 2cp bulbs. This would have provided enough illumination to aid close vision but remain hard to detect at a distance. The rear tail lights were circular and smaller in diameter to the headlights and mounted to brackets on the left and right of the rear bumper mounts. This was long before the time of blackout lights, so they just had to hope they were dim enough to avoid distant enemy detection…or just remove them outright.
The light assemblies were produced by four different companies, all of which were located in the Midwest-much like the rest of the truck’s components. These included the C.M.Hall Lamp Co. of Kenosha WI, the Indiana Lamp Co., Connersville IN, Edmunds and Jones Corp., Detroit MI, and the Guide Motor Lamp Manufacturing Co., Cleveland OH. Many of these companies would continue to produce for military vehicles and become household names during and after WW2.
At 1:30pm Eastern Standard time after over 10 years of blood sweat and tears from the combined efforts of three different Cantigny Park historic motor pool managers, a team of volunteers and professional restoration specialists, our Second series Class-B Standardized Military ‘Liberty’ Truck is ALIVE!!! The engine cranked right over and after a few small throttle and magneto adjustments ran smooth as silk and was shortly thereafter driven around the property of Firebrand LLC in Woodstock, GA. the truck drives flawlessly in forward and reverse gears and shifts perfectly and stops completely. The First Division Museum staff are extremely excited to finally see this decades-long project come to an end and bring the sights, sounds and smells of a war now 100 years past to life. A VERY special thanks to Tom Bailey at Firebrand for all his work in the last few months bringing our truck’s restoration to completion. We will be flying out to his shop at the end of the week to inspect, drive, and film the truck before its triumphant return to Cantigny Park!
Hello and welcome back to another post from Libertytruck.org! Today we are addressing a long overdue review of an important subject- types of Liberty Trucks! While there are many variations and civilian adaptations after the war (which we will follow up on in the future), you may have noticed in certain photos that there are some small differences between trucks: handle bar size, lighting systems, and wheels to name a few. That’s why right now we are going to address the most obvious differences between the first and second series of class-B Standardized military truck or ‘Liberty Truck’.
The first production Liberties to roll off the assembly line in January and February of 1918 were of course, the first series. These had many of the features of the prototypes tested in late 1917. The 1917 liberty truck and first prototypes are easily identified in photos by their single-bolt bumper beams. This was later changed to 4-bolts per side for production models and remained the standard for both types of truck. The rest of the features of the prototype would become hallmarks of the first series truck:
-Electric lighting system; a 6V battery located beneath the driver-side seat powering the head, tail, and side lamps, as well as a dash-mounted plug-in ‘trouble light’.
-Screw-top removable radiator cap
-Small style cab side handles
-Angled leaf spring oil cups
-10 Front leaf springs and 17 in the rear
Wooden spoke single 36×5 front and wooden spoke 40×6 dual rear wheels were also very commonly encountered on first series trucks, but are not exclusive to either series. Some first series trucks have left the factory with steel and some with wood. Steel cast wheels became the standard over time and are more commonly encountered on the second series however. I hesitate to make them clear features of one or the other, but felt it necessary to mention at the very least.
Introduced very late in the war, the second-series of trucks were given a host of new design features and parts and omitted several features of the first. Photo evidence and records suggest none of these trucks managed to make it overseas to Europe. They would become some of the more commonly encountered trucks that survive today despite being the lesser-produced of the two series. The second series was the final iteration of production Liberty Trucks and are easily identified by oil head lamps, a dash-mounted search light and steel wheels. The most distinguishing features of this truck were:
-Oil Lamp lighting for head and tail lamps (battery electrical system was omitted from under the seat as well as dash ‘trouble light’ and front bumper-mounted side lamps)
-Carbide Gas searchlight mounted on center dash and gas generator to power it (mounted on left front of cab/firewall)
-Manual fuel transfer pump to help transfer fuel between main and reserve fuel tanks on the right-hand side of the cab.
-Cab side handles enlarged
-Lower profile spring-clasp non-removable Radiator cap
-Shortened front wheel fenders
-Improved starting crank catch bracket
-Bosch Magneto used in place of previous models (Eisemann, Berling and Dixie types used initially)
-Vertical leaf spring oil cups
-Leaf spring improvement: 12 in the front, 20 in the rear
-‘Spicer’ model propeller shaft
These are not the only differences between the First and Second series Liberty Trucks, but they are some of the most noticeable and obvious when searching photos and researching the truck itself. Naturally many trucks were outfitted from existing stock which meant you would frequently get a truck in use by the Army or post-war organization with a mix of first and second series parts. A mixture of wheels is one of the most commonly encountered.
Army trucks- historically just a big green mass of metal of a generally dull shade that doesn’t immediately stick out of a natural environment. The concept hasn’t strayed too far in over a century and continues in the same respect today. With some slight variations in camouflage patterns, trucks in the US Military have generally remained painted in ‘drab’ colors since their inception and it all started before we even had trucks.
Prior to the official adoption of the Class B Standardized ‘Liberty’ in 1917, the Army of course had many of its own carts, wagons, and caissons which followed some of the same rules that had permeated for decades prior: paint the iron hardware black, and everything else green-ish. The Liberty Truck was no different according to page 116 of the ‘Manual of the Motor Transport Corps’ ca.1919 which stated:
Page 598 of the 1916 Manual for the Quartermaster Corps outlines specifically the paint mixture to be used when painting “Army and escort wagons” using the term ‘Olive Drab’ in reference to the color of paint. Though this manual was produced before the standardized truck was introduced, the already established shade for wagons was applied. The shade, when reproduced, resembles the natural color of olives (excluding pimento and black) far more than the greener generic OD#2 and OD#7 we have come to know and love from the days of WW2. It also has a slight ‘semi-gloss’ appearance which dulls over time and hard use. The mixture is as follows:
• 6 Pounds white lead ground in raw linseed oil
• 1 Pound raw umber
• 1 Pint turpentine
• 1 Pint Japan dryer
• 1 Quart raw linseed oil
Naturally, some of these ingredients are more difficult to use now that we know the hazards associated with using them. And despite the US not being a signatory to the 1921 White Lead Convention (look it up), white lead is now largely impossible to obtain without certain licensing and paperwork in amounts larger than 150mL, making the reproduction of this recipe a tad difficult. Having the correct paint was extremely important to us given the length of this project as well as our desire for attention to detail. While we had seen various other examples of the Standard B as static pieces on display for comparison, few appear to have correctly matched the paint recipe as listed in 1916. We initially attempted to reproduce this in small scale several years ago and were successful, but to have enough of the paint to cover our truck was going to require far more paint than we could ever hope to produce.
Thanks to tireless research, and the help of BAPS Auto Paint and Supply in York, PA, we were able to correctly match our original paint using computer software to bring our project even closer to completion. We were fortunate to find some original samples for comparison underneath the data plate of one of our many parts trucks as well as samples of our lead small-batch. As the project has progressed we have actually run out of paint (again) and are at present considering an oil-based machinery enamel which very closely resembles the semi-gloss finish of original paint seen in photos.